Book Published: Write, talk and teach

Write, talk and teach is a “how to” handbook. It discusses the basics of business communication and the importance of oral communication, and communication theories and strategies. This includes how to write and present, how to set an agenda and write minutes, how to communicate and work in groups, and how to use language to make sense of occupational and vocational learning.

The content is aimed at an introductory level and is not loaded with academic information. Its aim is to be a useful tool to develop language skills which will enable you to communicate effectively in different contexts and environments.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr F. Schutte, DBL: PhD; DTh; DLit et Phil

Flip Schutte holds a D Litt et Phil from UNISA, a PhD from the University of Pretoria and a DBL from the UNISA Business School. He is author of a number of books, scholarly journal articles, blogs and popular magazine articles. He is doing fulltime curriculum development for Centurion Academy and he is a post-doctorate research associate at the Gordon Institute for Business Science. He is also a passionate leadership consultant and business coach.

Author: Flip Schutte

Date Published: 2019-05-15

ISBN: 978-0-6399589-2-7 (print)
ISBN: 978-0-6399589-3-4 (e-book)

Published By: iNtgrty

Number of Pages: 272

R325.00

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Article 5: Critical race theory

Critical race theory focuses on the application of critical theory in terms of race. It objects to the perception of racial power, especially where it is overtly or covertly supported by legislation, which renders it institutionalised.

Institutionalised racism is the structures, legislation, policies, practices and norms resulting in differential access and opportunities between racial groups. It manifests itself in any situation where needs exist, be they material, psychological, political, technological, social, economic or power needs. Intentional discrimination is opposed on all terrains where people are involved, for example universities, schools, employment in the private and public sectors, sport, etc.

Critical race theory favours an aggressive, race-conscious, approach to social transformation. Although the starting point is often simple racial equality, political and legislative transformation can be even more important objectives. Hidden motives can also be present.

Not all critical race theory agendas are negative – it is also used to combat racial discrimination, facilitate the upliftment and growth of disadvantaged communities, redress of racial discrimination in the past, etc.

Although critical race theory originally applied to black people being discriminated against by whites, the opposite is also possible. Critical race theory also covers research where perceived discrimination by black people against white might call for investigation. In fact, it can be any group discriminating against the other who is often the minority in a country, region or community.

Critical race theory mostly investigates the achievement of racial emancipation and equality and can be addressed in any field of study, although social studies arguably embrace the paradigm the most. Historical and current incidents of racial discrimination are often used as evidence in support of a research problem or question or a research hypothesis. 

Critical race theory is supported by structuralism, for example by investigating how legislation and cultural influences impact on the demography of a community. In this respect micro-aggression is often an element of research making use of a critical race theory perception. Micro-aggression can be found in any community where a certain group might feel anger and frustration because of the way the perceived or real privileged elite treat them, or because of one or more privileges that the elite have at the expense of the discriminated, or that the discriminated are denied. This can erupt into riots, crime, or violence, which might call for research.

Critical race theory can also be linked to critical theory, neoliberalism, feminism, radicalism, romanticism and post-structuralism.

Critical race theory is not always structured. Although it investigates legislation and cultural influences, the process can be aggressive and unstructured, sometimes including riotous advocacy campaigns. Critical race theory is, unfortunately, sometimes used to achieve political agendas and to oppress minority or even majority groups that are vulnerable.

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Book Published: Effective Project Planning and Management

All stakeholders in the world of projects, such as project managers, supervisors, team leaders, contractors and suppliers will benefit from this book. It not only gives insight into the industry of running and managing projects, but it introduces the reader also to the tools necessary to plan, tender and prepare for projects. Work breakdown structures, Gantt charts, network diagram and how to compile and lead a winning team are just some of the essential skills necessary to plan and manage successful projects. Effective project planning and management is a sine qua non for every role-player in the industry.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Dr F. Schutte, DBL: PhD; DTh; DLit et Phil Flip Schutte held a PhD from the University of Pretoria and a Doctorate in Business Leadership from UNISA’s Business School (SBL). He lectures Project Management since 2004 and he is a post-doctorate research associate at the Gordon Institute for Business Science. He is also a passionate leadership consultant and business coach.

Author: Flip Schutte

Date Published: 2018-07-20

ISBN: 978-0-6399589-0-3 (print)
ISBN: 978-0-6399589-1-0 (e-book)

Published By: iNtgrty

Number of Pages: 236

R200.00

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Book Published: The First Battle of El Alamein 1 – 30 JULY 1942

The first battle of El Alamein book is now available. About this book:

The battle of El Alamein calls to memory the victory of the British 8th Army under command of Lieutenant General B.L. Montgomery over that of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel’s Panzerarmee Afrika during October to November 1942. This battle was decisive, but the eventual outcome was not in doubt as the contribution of American industrial power by that time tilted the balance of power in favour of their British ally, as was the case in August 1942 (battle of Alam Halfa) when Rommel desperately tried for a final time to break through to Cairo and the Suez Canal.

The situation in June to July 1942 is contrasted with the above-named scenario when a demoralised 8th Army retreated from Gazala after being defeated by Rommel’s forces. The skirmishes were initially not named a battle, but as eventually historians realised that what is now known as the 1st battle of El Alamein was the most significant of the three battles during 1942.

All that was needed was that Rommel’s forces had to break through the scattered cluster of British forces near the coast, especially as the 1st British Armoured Division only arrived during the afternoon of 1 July from Mersa Matruh. Thus, the 1st South African Infantry Division with the 18th Indian Brigade with inexperienced troops, faced the might of the German panzers. If Rommel could bypass the South Africans and Indians and reach the open terrain between the station and Alexandria he, master of mobile warfare, would outmanoeuvre the British and capture Alexandria and Cairo and eventually even the Persian Gulf oil fields, knocking the British Empire out of the war.

Rommel’s desperate efforts from 1 to 3 and again on 13 July failed, but the South Africans were in the eye of the firestorm. Gradually the battle developed into a process of attrition which favoured the British. The British commander, general C.J.E. Auchinleck eventually took the offensive, but British doctrine and experience did not yet lend it to the conduct of mobile warfare. Thus, Rommel’s forces were not destroyed. Auchinleck did however, lay the foundation for the British victories of Alam Halfa and the 2nd battle of El Alamein. The events in the battle during the period 1 – 30 July and the South African perspective is evaluated in this publication as a contribution to a better understanding of the North African campaign during the 2nd World War.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Colonel (Rtd.) Christiaan James Jacobs served for 41 years in the South African Defence National Defence Force. He attended as a junior armoured officer in the Namibian border war and from 1983 – 1989 as a lecturer in Military History at the Military Academy in Saldanha. He also served as the resident Military Historian at the South African Army College from 1997 to 2005 and at the South African National War College in Pretoria, till his retirement in 2014.

He has written several articles for scientific journals and is co-author of the book: Edwards, J. (ed.), El Alamein and the struggle for North Africa, published by the American University in Cairo Press in 2012. He holds a MA (Cum Laude) in History from Stellenbosch (1988). In 1994 he obtained his PHD in History from the University of the Free State.

Author: James Jacobs

Date Published: 2017-12-22

ISBN: 978-0-620-78416-0 (print)
ISBN: 978-0-620-78417-7 (e-book)

Published By: iNtgrty

Number of Pages: 261

R297.00

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Book Published: KOPERMAAN Liefdesgedigte

OOR DIE SKRYWER

Lynn is gebore op 10 Maart 1956 in die ou Militêre Hospitaal in Voortrekkerhoogte wat nou bekend staan as Thaba Tshwane. Sy het skool gegaan op Valhalla Laerskool en Voortekkerhoogtese Hoërskool.

Na matriek het Lynn by die weermag aangesluit en by die dieselfde ou Militêre Hospitaal opleiding gedoen as verpleegster. In Januarie 1977 het sy die kwalifikasie van Algemene Geregistreerde Verpleegster behaal sowel as komissie as ‘n offisier in die destydse SAW (Suid Afrikaanse Weermag). Hierna het sy haarself as psigiatriese verpleegkundige sowel as vroedvrou gekwalifiseer.

Vanaf 1980, nadat sy haar pos as verpleeg-offisier bedank het, het sy vir 10 jaar haar rol as eggenote en moeder van drie kinders vervul.

In 1990 is Lynn deeltyds by die Instituut vir Lugvaartgeneeskunde (ILG) begin werk en in 1991 aangesluit as siviele verpleegkundige, en is opgelei in Lugvaartgeneeskunde. In 2003 het sy weer by die SANW Staande Mag aangesluit en is aangestel as ‘n kaptein. Lynn het by ILG gewerk tot en met haar aftrede in 2016.

Lynn het in matriek begin dig. Danksy Afrikaanse en Engelse letterkunde op skool het Lynn ‘n belangstelling en waardering vir taal ontwikkel.

Author: Lynn Greyling

Date Published: 2018-04-03

ISBN: 978-0-620-72984-0 (print)
ISBN: 978-0-620-72985-7 (e-book)

Published By: iNtgrty

Number of Pages: 102

R80.00

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Article 4: Constructivism

Constructivism claims that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. We reconcile new observations and experiences with our previous ideas and experiences. This might change our perceptions, or the new information and experiences might be discarded, depending on how we process it in our minds. This means that we create our own knowledge by asking questions and exploring things, which would inevitably be subjective.[1] Elkind[2] defined constructivism as follows:

“Constructivism is the recognition that reality is a product of human intelligence interacting with experience in the real world.”

Ethics is an important value in constructivism. Constructivists recognise the importance of the construction and the way in which data is collected as prerequisites for validity and accuracy of analysis. The quality of data and the way in which it is analysed determine the nature of reality and how it is interpreted.     

Constructivism is mostly used with grounded theory methodology.[3] Human interests are important for research purposes, with the result that the paradigm can also be used with several other research methods, for example action research, case study research, ethnography, etc. A multitude of data collecting methods can be used, for example interviews, participant observation, artefacts, and almost any documents that are relevant to the field of study.[4]

The aim of such research is to understand situations or phenomena. Rich data is gathered from which ideas can be formed. It involves a researcher collaborating with participants. The interaction of people is researched in their context or setting, mostly to solve social problems of the target group. The accuracy of research findings is validated and creates an agenda for change or reform. This is a rather well-known sequence of events that is followed in most qualitative research methodology.

Constructivism is also closely associated with pragmatism, relativism, liberalism, interpretivism, symbolic interactionism and positivism. For example, like positivism, constructivism also uses observation to gather information. Different from positivism, which argues that knowledge is generated in a scientific method, i.e. externally, you, as the researcher, are part of what is being observed, i.e. internally. This is called an ‘emic’ approach, which means observing the community, also called the target group, from the inside. An ‘etic’ approach would mean to observe the target group from the outside, as in the case of positivism.

Although some academics claim that constructivism can be positively associated with behaviourism, this is a rather weak and unconvincing link because of the absence of reflection in the case of behaviourism. This, however, is also questionable because “learned history” without reflection does not make sense. Constructivism also rejects scientism and empiricism for much the same reason, i.e. lack of reflection.

Constructivism is rather widely criticised in terms of its value, or lack of value in education as well as its lack of balance when used as a philosophy in research. In education it can lead to group thinking when the interpretation of one or a few prominent educators or scientists is regarded as “the only truth”.

Constructivists sometimes place too much emphasis on sensory experience at the expense of reflection. This means that constructivists sometimes focus strongly on the ontology, i.e. “what is” and neglect the epistemology, i.e. the “explanation” and “justification” of the phenomenon, with the result that knowledge is not sufficiently proven to be valid or accurate.

Different academics integrate constructivism with other paradigms, research methods and realities, thereby robbing it of its identity as a valid research paradigm.


[1] http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concpet2class/constructivism. Accessed on 22/11/2017.

[2] In https://research-methodology.net/research-philosophy/epistemology. Accessed on 22/11/2017.

[3] N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln, 2018: 416.

[4] https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Barbara_Kawulich/publication/… Accessed on 01/05/2018.

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Article 3: Behaviourism

Written by Dr Hannes Nel, D. Com; D. Phil

Behaviourism is a set of doctrines that argues that human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of external stimuli, responses, learned histories and reinforcement of knowledge and understanding. Reinforcement of knowledge and understanding can increase (positive reinforcement) or decrease (negative reinforcement) desired behaviour.

According to behaviourism all human behaviour can be understood in terms of cause and effect. Behaviourists, therefore, argue that research should focus on that which is determined by, and is the product of, the environment. This implies that research should focus on observable behaviour which can be objectively measured rather than on things like cognitive processes which can only be inferred.[1] Intentionality and purposiveness are excluded or regarded as less important. Behaviourists, furthermore, argue that the human mind cannot be known and, therefore, cannot be shown to influence the individual’s behaviour. All mental states, including beliefs, values, motives and reasons can only be described, defined and explained in terms of observable behaviour. Any data of a mental kind should be regarded as unscientific.

Behaviourism is related to positivism, because positivism believes that understanding of human behaviour can be gained through observation and reason. Behaviourism can also be associated with empiricism because both make use of experimentation, specifically experience and the simulation of experience.

As in the case of behaviourism, symbolic interactionism and hermeneutics also believe that learning takes place through interaction between human beings, i.e. external stimuli. All three paradigms strongly depend on language to convey and share research findings and, consequently, the accuracy and validity of findings through behaviourism and symbolic interactionism depend on the ability of the researcher to use language. 

Behaviourism disagrees with phenomenology because phenomenology considers experience through direct interaction while behaviourism takes external stimuli into consideration.

Behaviourism disagrees with constructivism because constructivism claims that understanding is gained through experience and reflection while behaviourism neglects the cognitive processes, i.e. reflection. The same applies to pragmatism because pragmatism postulates that knowledge is gained through observation and interpretation. There is, however, a link between positivism and constructivism with “reason” requiring “reflection”. This, however, can hardly be establishing a positive link between behaviourism and constructivism because of other elements which we will discuss under constructivism, which happens to be the next paradigm that we will discuss.

In closing, the problem with behaviourism as a research paradigm is that changes in behaviour without taking cognitive processes into consideration are often only temporary. Consequently, it does not deal with subjective human meaning-making. Some behaviourists, however, do recognise the fact that cognitive thinking and the accompanying emotions can influence behaviour, a philosophy that is popularly called ‘radical behaviourism’. A second criticism against behaviourism is that its explanation of the reason for, or what causes behaviour, is not always scientifically corroborated.


[1] https://www.aqr.org.uk/glossary/behaviourism. Accessed on 23/11/2017.

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