In my previous post, I discussed writing a second chapter for your Ph. D. Research Report.
This post on how to prepare a draft for a Ph. D. Report ties in closely with my previous post on how to structure your research report.
You will write many different versions for a draft report, and you will continue reviewing what was probably just a structure in the beginning until you rich the point where you will have a final product.
But you need to start with a first draft.
The following seven steps will enable you to write a first draft.
Step 1: Make an outline of your headings.
The outline should be an abbreviated picture of the parts of your report that you can also use as the scope for when you need to defend your submission.
The Table of Contents of your research report can serve as the outline.
Initially, you will start with just a framework. As you progress with your research, the framework will grow into your actual report as well as the final table of contents for your research report.
The outline can help you prevent and identify flaws in the structure of your report.
Step 2: Check your research statement, question or hypothesis.
You will have written your research statement, question or hypothesis when you prepared your research proposal.
You can refocus the research statement, question or hypothesis at any point while writing your report, if necessary.
You can also refocus it as often as you wish, although you should not do this indiscriminately.
Refocusing your research statement, question or hypothesis would be necessary if you were too ambitious when you decided on the scope for your research.
You will need to refocus your research statement, question or hypothesis if you run out of time.
Your study leader will not like it if you run out of time because you dragged your feet.
Step 3: Write the body of your research report from your notes.
This is where you will ensure that what you write flows logically.
You should check if all your ideas, arguments, evidence, figures and tables flow logically, much like the narrative for a novel.
In the old days, we used notecards for this.
Now we have computers that make the work much easier.
Step 4: Check that you site all the information that you quoted from other sources with parenthetical citations.
Parenthetical citations are where you recognise the authors of the text, statistics, etc. that you use in your report.
You must cite your sources when using the following kinds of material, in whole or in part:
- Direct quotations.
- Paraphrased and reconstructed quotations. (Quotations of which you changed the original wording somewhat.)
- Statistical data.
- Images made by someone else.
- Song lyrics.
- Original ideas that belong to someone else.
We will discuss referencing methods in a future post.
Step 5: Write your introduction.
The introduction normally has two parts:
- A general introduction to the topic of your research.
- Your research statement.
Step 6: Write your conclusion.
You will conclude after you have done the literature study and fieldwork.
Through the conclusions you should:
- Create an impression with the reader that the work is complete and well done.
- Show that the research project has been brought to a logical and realistic end.
- Show that you have made a positive contribution to the field of your study.
You can restate your research statement, question or hypothesis here.
You can also summarise your main points of evidence here.
Step 7: Create a title page.
I already discussed the title page in a separate post on writing a title page and in the post on structuring your research report.
You can prepare the title page at any stage while doing your research and writing your report.
Reviewing your draft report
You can and probably will submit chapters or perhaps just sections that your study leader would like to see from time to time.
However, do not submit what you might regard as a final product unless you feel proud of the work that you did.
You should feel confident that your study leader will be satisfied with your work, so much so that you are looking forward to his or her feedback.
And even though you might expect to be showered with praise, you need to realise that the opposite might still happen. Be prepared for what you might regard as cruel, unfair and unnecessary criticism.
This is when you will need to show character. Now is the time when you will need to show that you can persevere.
Do not blame your study leader for not being as impressed with your work as you are. Listen, or read, the feedback carefully and give yourself time to think about the feedback, absorb it and to decide how you can benefit from the disappointment.
You can and should pre-empt negative feedback by evaluating and correcting your work even before your study leader tells you to do so.
Here are eight questions that you can ask of your work to find opportunities for improvement:
- Is it necessary to introduce new material, data, ideas, and thinking? If yes, then find the additional content and include it.
- Did you include arguments or information in your research report that adds no value because it is not relevant to the purpose of your research? If so, remove such padding from your report.
- Is there data or arguments that you included early in your report that later proved to be outdated or irrelevant?
- Is there more recent and relevant data or arguments in a later chapter or chapters? Remove obsolete data and arguments.
- Can you find any cognitive mistakes in any of your arguments, conclusions, assumptions or recommendations? If so, remove the errors or correct them.
- Is the structure of your chapters or sections in chapters erratic? Good software, such as ATLAS.Ti can often solve the problem. Sometimes logical thinking can also do wonders for the flow of your report.
- Did you respond negatively, aggressively or immaturely to feedback from your study leader, assistant study leader or perhaps even one or more external examiners? Apologise and thank them for their assistance. Correct your errors and inform them how you used their feedback to improve your work.
- Did you repeat theoretical data, arguments, etc. in your report? Even simple office software, like Microsoft Word, can find the repetition of sentences if you suspect that you repeated a statement and ask the software to find it.
- Did you, at any stage while writing your report, use a research method or paradigm incorrectly? It can happen that you “drifted” from one research method or paradigm to different, more suitable ones. This is not always wrong, but if the research methods or paradigmatic approaches contradict one another you will need to correct the error.
Probably all research topics on a doctoral level are of such a nature that the perfectionist will never be satisfied with the report. There will always be something that needs improvement.
You must draw the line somewhere, even if the temptation to just do this and that might be strong.
The structure that you will prepare when you start with your research is already a first draft.
You can use the seven steps that I discussed to prepare your first draft.
You will end up writing and saving many versions of your research report until you reach the point where you are satisfied that you have achieved the purpose of your research project.
You can and should review and improve your draft report intuitively by correcting flaws when you identify them.
You can improve your product further by asking and answering the nine questions that I discussed.
Don’t become trapped in a never-ending process of review and further research.