Making vides on research methodology in Africa

Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, D. Com, D. Phil

Context is what it is all about.

Ontology, epistemology, ethnomethodology, phenomenology and all the other “gy’s” mean pretty much the same when considered in terms of grammar. Interpretivists would tell you that every culture and historical situation is different and unique. That is why research conducted in an African context will be different from research in a European, Asian or any other context. And even “European” and “Asian” are overgeneralized contexts.

Even so, research methodology remains the same all over the world because the same principles and processes can be applied to different contexts.

Hello, my name is Hannes Nel and I have developed 109 video lessons on research methodology. Initially I worked from my office and house in Pretoria. Halfway through the process my wife and I moved to Hartenbos in the Southern Cape. That is when the environment became more interesting.

One night I was visited by a small snake with a huge self-image. Although only about 15 centimeters long, the little guy would lift his head and pump up his neck pretending to be a Cape Cobra. It was a Wolf snake, and they are harmless. I grabbed the little guy by the neck and gently dropped him over the fence into the safety of the open field.

Not long after that a centipede, about 5 cm long and fifteen millimeters wide crawled through under the same door as the snake. This rascal was incredibly fast and made a dash for the safety of a couch. I looked under all three our couches but could not find him. I sometimes wake up between two and three o’clock in the morning. Once I start thinking about work, I know that I will not sleep again, so I would get up, make myself a cup of coffee and work on the script for my next video. About two weeks after the centipede invaded my house, I accidently stepped on him in the dark passage leading to my room. He left his hide during the night, probably looking for food. Fortunately, I had my sandals on because a centipede can deliver nasty bite.

My wife had a rather extensive succulent collection in Pretoria and she brought some of them with to Hartenbos. She also bought some new ones in the Northern Cape, which is almost a desert, so that one can find ones that make the most beautiful flowers there.

Sadly, the suburb where we live is developing at an incredible pace. The natural vegetation is rapidly being lost to new houses. That is why the guineafowl are peeping over our neighbour’s fence to see if there is not, perhaps, some open space and something to eat for them on the other side. And the family of partridges that used to scratch around in our garden also left when the building contractors appeared on the scene. A family of rabbits lived and bred in the open field next to our house. You can still see them from time to time, but they are also moving out.

A thick knee bird laid two eggs right next to my study. They don’t build a nest like most other birds do. Their eggs are well camouflaged, so they just lay them on the unprepared ground. We have a collection of different protea species in our garden and the thick knee bird laid her eggs under one of the smaller protea bushes.

The male and female take turns sitting on the eggs and the one sitting on the eggs will not easily leave the nest even when threatened. The other one would stay in the vicinity to protect the nest and sitting partner. If you approach them, he or she would spread their wings and their eyes, which are usually a soft yellow will turn to a fierce-looking bright orange colour to scare you away.

One night a wild cat or some other predator attacked the male sitting on the nest. The next morning, he was gone. I found only the scull on my driveway. What I found strange was that the were no feathers or bones, only the clean-stripped skull. The hen still tried to hatch the eggs, but I am not sure if they hatched because I had to return to Pretoria to finalise our move.

Nature must be angry at us. In the early hours of 29 September 2019 a huge thunder storm broke out over the suburb where we live. In less than twenty minutes the water broke a 6 meter gap in the wall between our house and the one above us, raged through our yard and crashed into the wall on the other side of our house, breaking a six meter gap in this wall.

I wish we could just live with nature without having to disturb the habitat of the wild animals.  We really need to find a way in which to live with nature rather than to destroy and disrupt without thinking about the damage that we are causing. Fortunately, there is a game reserve less than a hundred meters from the suburb where we live so that most of the animals can move there.

In closing, allow me to share some brief notes on the videos on research methodology that I produced:

  1. The videos are aimed at students who wish to embark on P. Hd. or master’s degree studies.
  2. I am posting one video per week on YOUTUBE where anybody can have access to them for free.
  3. In addition, I am posting the scripts that I used to produce the videos as articles on one of our web sites (www.intgrty.co.za). You can, therefore, also read the articles for free.
  4. The full video menu is also posted as an article on the “intgrty” web site.
  5. You can also gain access to the videos on our online learning platform at less than one USA Dollar per video. Once you have gained access to a video, you can revisit it as many times as you wish at no additional cost.
  6. Prospective or studying post-graduate students need not watch all the videos. You should be able to write your thesis or dissertation if you watch only the videos that are relevant to your research level and topic. Five or six videos will probably be enough.
  7. Lecturers can also use the videos as training aids, thereby saving their students the cost of having to pay for the videos.
  8. Lecturers can also use the questions that I ask in my tests in theirs and they need not acknowledge the source. The electronic address of the platform is:

        (https://mentornetonline.co.za/videoCourses.php)

  • I also posted 3 videos with open access as a sample on our online learning platform.
  • I also developed a ten-question online test per video. Those who watched the videos on the online platform can do the tests online at no additional cost. They can repeat the tests as many times as they wish and, once they have successfully completed all 109 tests, will automatically be issued with a Mentornet Proficiency Certificate in Research Methodology.

Enjoy our studies.

Thank you.

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Video-lessons on Research Methodology on Master’s Degree or Doctoral Level

The videos are posted on the Mentornet Online Platform (https://mentornetonline.co.za/videoCourses.php)

Videos range between 5 and 18 minutes in duration.

  1. Why Would You Embark on Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Studies?
  2. The Research Proposal.
  3. How to Structure Your Research Proposal.
  4. The Difference Between a Research Report on the Honours, the Master’s and the Doctoral Level.
  5. How to Structure a Title Page for a Master’s Degree Thesis or a Ph. D. Dissertation.
  6. The Layout and Structure of a Table of Contents for a Ph. D. Dissertation.
  7. How to Decide on the Context for Your Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Research.
  8. How to Choose a Research Approach for a Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Study.
  9. The Nature and Structure of a Ph. D. Dissertation or Master’s Degree Thesis.
  10. The Relationship Between the Ph. D. Student and the Study Leader.
  11. The Table of Contents of your Ph. D. Dissertation or Master’s Degree Thesis.
  12. How to Prepare an Abstract for a Ph. D. Dissertation.
  13. How to Write the First Chapter of Your Ph. D. Dissertation or Master’s Degree Thesis.
  14. How to Write the Second Plus Chapters of Your Ph. D. Dissertation or Master’s Degree Thesis.
  15. Creating a Draft for a Ph. D. Dissertation or Master’s Degree Thesis.
  16. The Research Problem, Question or Hypothesis for a Ph. D. Dissertation or a Master’s Degree Thesis.
  17. How to Find a Topic for Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Research.
  18. How to Establish Objectives for Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Research.
  19. The Scope for a Ph. D. Dissertation or Master’s Degree Thesis.
  20. Specifying the Limitations for Your Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Research.
  21. Consulting Sources of information for Your Ph. D. or Master’s Degree Research.
  22. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies.
  23. The Interrelatedness of Ontology, Epistemology and Methodology.
  24. Research Methods: Action Research.
  25. Research Methods: Case Studies.
  26. Research Methods: Conceptual Studies.
  27. Research Methods: Ethnography.
  28. Research Methods: Experimental Methods.
  29. Research Methods: Field Research.
  30. Research Methods: Grounded Theory.
  31. Research Methods: Historical Research.
  32. Research Methods: Literature Study.
  33. Research Methods: Sampling Part 1 of 6.
  34. Research Methods: Sampling Part 2 of 6.
  35. Research Methods: Sampling Part 3 of 6.
  36. Research Methods: Sampling Part 4 of 6.
  37. Research Methods: Sampling Part 5 of 6.
  38. Research Methods: Sampling Part 6 of 6.
  39. Research Methods: Statistical Research Methods Part 1 of 2.
  40. Research Methods: Statistical Research Methods Part 2 of 2.
  41. Research Methods: Transformative Research.
  42. Research Methods: Paradigmatic Approaches.
  43. Research Paradigms: Behaviorism.
  44. Research Paradigms: Constructivism.
  45. Research Paradigms: Critical Race Theory.
  46. Research Paradigms: Critical Theory.
  47. Research Paradigms: Empiricism.
  48. Research Paradigms: Ethnomethodology.
  49. Research Paradigms: Feminism.
  50. Research Paradigms: Functionalism.
  51. Research Paradigms: Hermeneutics.
  52. Research Paradigms: Humanism.
  53. Research Paradigms: Interpretivism.
  54. Research Paradigms: Liberalism.
  55. Research Paradigms: Modernism.
  56. Research Paradigms: Neoliberalism.
  57. Research Paradigms: Phenomenology.
  58. Research Paradigms: Positivism.
  59. Research Paradigms: Post-colonialism.
  60. Research Paradigms: Post-modernism.
  61. Research Paradigms: Post-positivism.
  62. Research Paradigms: Post-structuralism.
  63. Research Paradigms: Pragmatism.
  64. Research Paradigms: Pre-modernism.
  65. Research Paradigms: Radicalism.
  66. Research Paradigms: Rationalism.
  67. Research Paradigms: Relativism.
  68. Research Paradigms: Romanticism.
  69. Research Paradigms: Scientism.
  70. Research Paradigms: Structuralism.
  71. Research Paradigms: Symbolic Interactionism.
  72. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection.
  73. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Contextualising Your Research.
  74. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Using Documents to Collect Data.
  75. Research methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Quantitative Data Collection Methods.
  76. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Qualitative Data Collection Methods.
    1. Artefacts.
    1. Graphics and drawings.
  77. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Interviewing Part 1 of 4.
  78. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Interviewing Part 2 of 4.
  79. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Interviewing Part 3 of 4.
  80. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Interviewing Part 4 of 4.
  81. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Observation Part 1 of 2.
  82. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Observation Part 2 of 2.
  83. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Online Data Sources Part 1 of 2.
  84. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Online Data Sources Part 2 of 2.
  85. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Collection Methods. Written Documents.
  86. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Preparing for Data Collection.
  87. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis Through Coding.
  88. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 1 of 7.
    1. Analytical induction.
    1. Biographical analysis.
  89. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 2 of 7.
    1. Comparative analysis.
    1. Content analysis.
  90. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 3 of 7. Conversation and Discourse Analysis.
  91. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 4 of 7. Elementary Analysis.
  92. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 5 of 7. Ethnographic Analysis.
  93. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 6 of 7.
    1. Inductive thematic analysis.
    1. Narrative analysis.
    1. Retrospective analysis.
  94. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis, Part 7 of 7.
    1. Schema analysis.
    1. Situational analysis.
    1. Textual analysis.
    1. Thematic analysis.
  95. Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis. Methods for Organizing and Analysing Data Part 1 of 2.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Data Analysis. Methods for Organizing and Analysing Data Part 2 of 2.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 1 of 10.
  • 10.
    • Deconstruction.
    • Empirical generalization.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 3 of 10. Ethics in research part 1 of 3.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 4 of 10. Ethics in research part 2 of 3.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 5 of 10. Ethics in research part 3 of 3.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 6 of 10. Typing format.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 7 of 10. Quotations.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 8 of 10. Referencing sources.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 9 of 10. Essential information in references. Part 1 of 2.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation Part 10 of 10. Essential information in references. Part 2 of 2.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Reviewing the Thesis or Dissertation Part 1 of 3.      
    • The purpose of the review.
    • The relevance of sources.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Reviewing the Thesis or Dissertation Part 2 of 3.
    • The relevance of ideas in the literature.
    • Reviewing language usage.
  • Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Reviewing the Thesis or Dissertation Part 3 of 3.
    • The title page.
    • Proofreading.
    • Appendices.
    • A review checklist.
    • Presentation of the report.
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References Consulted for the Production of the Videos on Research Methodology for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies

Prepared by Dr. Hannes Nel

Books

Abraham-Hamanoiel, D.; Freedman, D.; Khiabany, G.; Nash, K. and Petley, J. (Editors), 2017. Liberalism in Neoliberal Times. Dimensions, Contradictions, Limits. Godsmiths Press. London.

Anderson, J. and Poole, M. 2001. Assignment & Thesis Writing. South African Edition. Juta. Pretoria.

Babbie, E., 2011. Introduction to Social Research. International Edition. Cengage Learning. Wadsworth, Australia.

Babbie, E. and Mouton, J. 2004. Fourth edition. The practice of Social Research. Oxford University Press. New York.

Bak, N. 2013. Completing your thesis. A practical guide. Van Schaik Publishers, Pretoria.

Berg, B.L. and Lune, H. 2014. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Pearson. Harlow.

Berlin, I. 1999. The Roots of Romanticism. Princeton University Press. Princeton and Oxford.

Blaikie, N. and Priest, J. 2017. Social Research. Paradigms in Action. Clay Ltd, St. Ives PLC.

Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. and Tight, M. 2010. How to Research.Fourth Edition. Mc Graw Hill, Open University Press. New York.

Bryman, A., Bell, E., Hirschsohn, P., dos Santos, A., du Toit, J., Masenge, A., van Aard, I., Wagner, C. 2017. Research Methodology. Oxford University Press. Cape Town.

Clarke, E. 2005. Situational Analysis. Grounded Theory after the Postmodern Turn. Sage Publications Inc. London.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. 2010. Research Methods in Education. Routledge. London and New York.

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. 2000. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second edition. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks. London, New Delhi.

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. 2018. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Fifth edition. Sage Publications, Inc. Los Angeles.

De Vos, A.S, Strydom, H., Fouché, C.B. and Delport, C.S.L. 2006. Research at Grass roots. Third Edition. Van Schaik Publishers. Pretoria.

Du Plooy-Cilliers, F., Davis, C. and Bezuidenhout, R. 2014. Research Matters. Juta and Company Ltd. Somerset-West.

Killam, L. 2013. Research Terminology Simplified. Paradigms, Axiology, Ontology, Epistemology and Methodology. E-Book.

Maxwell, J.A. 2013. Qualitative Research Design. An Interactive Approach. Sage. Los Angeles.

McMillan, J.H., and Schumacher, S. 2001. Research in Education. R.R. Donneley & Sons, Inc. Harrisonburg.

Muijs, D. 2011. Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. Second edition. Sage Publications Inc. California.

Silverman, D. (editor). 2016. Qualitative Research. Fourth edition. Sage Publications, Inc. Los Angeles.

TerréBlanche, M. & Durrheim, K. 1999. Research in Practice. Applied Methods for the Social Science.University of Cape Town Press. Cape Town.

Yin, R.K., 2016. Qualitative Research. The Guilford Press. New York.

Internet sources

Aber, J. The Technical, the Practical, and the Emancipatory: A Habermasian view of Composition Pedagogy.

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Academic Phrasebank. Writing Conclusions.

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Answers.com. Difference between thesis and dissertation?

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AQR. Behaviourism.

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Assumptions of Feminist Paradigms.

www.qualres.org/HomeFemi-3519.

Accessed on 04/04/2017.

AudioEnglish.net. Multiple Correlation.

Accessed on 30/08/2011.

BBC News Europe. German Defence Minister Guttenberg resigns over thesis.

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Caldwell, W. Multi/Inter/Trans-disciplinary, What’s the Difference?

Accessed on 07/02/2019.

CAMO Software AS. Statistical Regression Analysis.

Accessed on 02/03/2018.

Chilisa, B. and Kawulich, B. Selecting a research approach: paradigm, methodology and methods.

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Clin, D.M. Appendix and annexure.

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Dames, K.M. The Difference Between Copyrights & Intellectual Property. Core Copyright.

Accessd on 19/02/2018.

Dash, N.K. Module: Selection of the Research Paradigm and Methodology.

http://www.celt.mmu.ac.uk/researchmethods/Modules/Selection_of_methodology/index… Accessed on 18/08/2011.

Descombe, M. Communities of Practice. A research Paradigm for the Mixed Methods Approach. Journal of Mixed Methods Research Volume 2 Number 3 July 2008: 270 – 283. Sage Publications.

www.journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/155869808316807.

Accessed on 05/05/2018.

Dudovskiy, J. Constructivism Research Philosophy.

Accessed on 22/11/2017.

Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Concepts to Classroom. Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

Accessed on 22/11/2017.

Ellipsis.

Accessed on 02/09/2011.

Ethnographic film.

Accessed on 06/09/2011.

Factor Analysis.

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Factor Analysis.

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Google. What is schema analysis?

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Individual Philosopher. The Basics of Philosophy. Scientism.

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The Free Dictionary. Feminist paradigm. Article about Feminist paradigm.

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Georgetown University Library. Evaluating Internet Resources.

www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials.

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Given, L.M. and Oslon, H.A. Organizing Knowledge = Organizing Data: Applying Principles of Information Organization to the Research Process.

Accessed on 06/09/2011.

Goldkuhl, G. 2012. Pragmatism vs Interpretivism in Qualitative Information Systems Research. European Journal of Information Systems, (21), 2, 135 – 146.

Accessed on 22/02/2017.

Hiemstra, R. Critical Path Analysis.

Accessed on 30/08/2011.

Hung, P-Y. and Popp, A. Learning to Do Historical Research: A Primer How to Frame a Researchable Question.

Accessed on 19/08/2011.

Kalla, S. 3 June 2010. Statistical Validity.

Accessed on 02/03/2018.

Kinnsela, E.A. Hermeneutics and Critical Hermeneutics: Exploring Possibilities Within the Art of Interpretation.

Accessed on 20/11/2017.

Lee, I. Works Cited, References and Bibliography – What’s the Difference? http://www.bydewey.com/10works.html.

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LEO. MLA Parenthetical Documentation.

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Limitations, delimitations.

Accessed on 05/09/2011.

Litman, T. Evaluating Research Quality.

www.vtpi.org.

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Mackenzie, N. and Knipe, S. Research dilemmas: Paradigms, methods and methodology.

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Mertens, D.M. July 1, 2007. Transformative Paradigms. Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

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Multiple correlation.

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National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, USA. Definition of Transformative Research.

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Path Analysis.

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Purdue OWL. Proofreading.

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Regression analysis.

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https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Radical hermeneutics…

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Ryan, A.B. Post-positivist Approaches to Research.

www.eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/874/1/post-positivist_approaches_to_research.pdf.

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SAGE Journals online.

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Samuels, H. Basic Steps in the Research Process. Cambridge Rindge and Latin Research Guide.

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Selecting Participants and Conducting Research.

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Shuttleworth, M. The Parts of a Research Paper.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Critical Theory.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Relativism.

Accessed on 24/11/2017.

Steiner, C.J. 2002. The Technicist Paradigm and Scientism in Qualitative Research. The Qualitative Report, Volume 7, Number 2, Article 4.

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Statpac.Inc. Statistical Significance.

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Summary of Survey Analysis Software.

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The Guardian. Neoliberalism – the ideology at the root of all our problems.

Accessed on 24/04/2018.

Thorsen, D.E. and Lie, A. What is Neoliberalism? Department of Political Science, University of Ohio.

https://folk.uio.no/daget/neoliberalism.pdf. Alternatively: https://

pdfs.semanticscholar.org/089/731ee9a3257a0baa9a4e302b578f1bbc59d2.pdf.

Accessed on 02/05/2018.

Trevors, J.T. Transformative research: definitions, approaches and consequences.

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Wright, J. What are the limitations of phenomenology?

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Other

Anderson, T. Date unknown. Research Paradigms: Ontologies, Epistemologies & Methods. PhD Seminar slide show, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

Asiko, A.B. December 2016. Beyond a Qualitative Enquiry: A Neoliberal Society and Power Relations in Action. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. Vol 3 No. 12.

Crews, K.D. 2013. Copyright and Your Research report: Ownership, Fair Use, and Your Rights and Responsibilities. ProQuest Article.

Mackenzie, N. and Knipe, S. 2006. Research delimmas: Paradigms, methods and methodology. Issues In Educational Research, Vol 16.

Nel, J.P. 2007. A Strategic Approach to Quality Assurance in Occupationally-directed Education, Training and Development in South Africa. D. Phil Dissertation. University of Johannesburg.

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ARTICLE 109: Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Reviewing the Thesis or Dissertation Part 3 of 3 Parts

Written by Dr. Hannes Nel

As a last snippet of information on writing and reviewing a thesis or dissertation, I briefly discuss the following salient issue in this article:

  1. The title page for thesis or dissertation.
  2. Proofreading the manuscript.
  3. Adding appendices to a thesis or dissertation.
  4. Using a review checklist.
  5. Presentation of the thesis or dissertation.

The title page

The title should convey clearly and succinctly the topic being researched. Avoid obscure and unnecessarily lengthy titles. Some universities recommend that titles should not exceed 15 words. Start off with a working title and revisit and reformulate as you read for greater focus.

Proofreading

Proofreading is primarily about searching for errors, both grammatical and typographical, before submitting your manuscript to a study leader. You need to take note of the technical and editorial requirements for a thesis or dissertation as prescribed by the university.

Do not underestimate the importance of proofreading. It does not matter how good your langue proficiency is, you should still have your thesis or dissertation language-edited. Language editors can also make mistakes and miss errors, therefore you should still personally read the final draft of your thesis with utmost care, correcting all typing errors before you present the completed thesis to your study leader.

It helps to determine in advance what to look for when proofreading your manuscript. This process of individualisation can be done by preparing a checklist of criteria against which you can test your work.

Experienced researchers will know what common errors and flaws to look out for and they can often search for these by computer, thereby rendering the proofreading process more efficient and effective than if they were to blindly read the entire manuscript. Even so, it is always a good idea to read everything as many times as you possibly can. It also helps to ask somebody else to critically read the manuscript because we tend to miss our own mistakes. You should find out what your typical problem areas are and look for each type of error individually. There is no single right way in which to do proofreading, so the following are just guidelines:

  1. Find out what errors you typically make. This is something that comes with experience and writing even just one thesis or dissertation will already give you a good idea of the kind of errors that you tend to make repeatedly. Your study leader can point out such bad habits and help you understand why you make the errors so that you can learn to be on the lookout for them and to avoid them.
  2. Learn how to fix your common errors. Use a structured proofreading process. Some students prefer to read the assignment or thesis from the back to the front, others read chapters or sections in a specific sequence, others read word-by word (which is very time-consuming, but effective). Review your study leader’s comments about your writing and/or have your thesis or dissertation reviewed by a language editor. Learn what facilities your computer and software offer you with which you can correct errors more quickly.
  3. Take a break. Allow yourself time between writing and proofreading. It is not healthy to sit behind your desk all day, especially if you work on computer. Besides, taking a short break every hour or so will help you get some distance from, and allow you time to think about what you have written. Any researcher can testify that taking a break and sleeping on a challenge can do wonders to findings solutions to challenges, and seeing what you have written more clearly in your mind.
  4. Leave yourself enough time to review what you have written. Working against time seldom, if ever, works when writing and proofreading. Deep thinking is necessary, and it requires thinking about what you have written and the message that you wish to convey. Reading what you have written critically will help you to see a multitude of possible errors, such as cognitive dissonance, spelling errors, typing errors, subjectivity and many more. Always read through your writing slowly and think about what you have written. If you read at normal speed, you will not give your eyes and mind sufficient time to spot errors.
  5. Read aloud when you are alone. Reading aloud encourages you to read word by word. This is rather strenuous and almost impossible for most people who need to read hundreds of pages. However, it is effective when you find a sentence, paragraph or argument difficult to understand. Besides, any statement that you find difficult to understand will most certainly also confuse and frustrate those who read it but did not write it. It might even be an indication of plagiarism. Therefore, such sentences, paragraphs or arguments should be reformulated, motivated, explained or omitted.
  6. Role-play and “predict”. Especially procedures can be tested by simulating them. You should also try to foresee how your study leader will react to what you have written. It would be irresponsible to submit work that you know is not good enough, especially if you know that the chances are good that the study leader will not be satisfied with it. You should also think how other readers will respond to your work. If you doubt that they will understand, agree with or like your arguments, you will need to change them or motivate them as well as you possibly can.
  7. Ask others for feedback. Asking a friend, your wife or husband, a colleague or a language editor to read your manuscript will let you get another perspective on your writing. A different reader will be able to help you catch mistakes that you might have overlooked, although people close to you might not always be completely honest and objective in their feedback.

Appendices

Make use of appendices to provide the reader with evidence that substantiates arguments made in the thesis or dissertation but is too long to include in the body. Appendices can also explain long processes and provide additional and complete information on aspects that appear in the main text that are too long to include in a specific chapter or section. Appendices should be numbered.

A review checklist

It is unlikely that your study leader or any of the external assessors will use a checklist to assess your thesis or dissertation. They are mostly experienced academics and deficiencies in your work are likely to attract their attention. Even so, you can use a checklist to spot most of the deficiencies that they might find.

Presentation of the thesis or dissertation

Dissemination is the process by which you communicate your thesis or dissertation, its findings and recommendations, to other potentially interested parties. You might need to present your findings to the following possible interested parties before and after you have submitted your thesis or dissertation for graduation purposes:

  1. within your organisation,
  2. to meetings where people from similar organisations and fields of interest gather,
  3. to your union branch,
  4. to professional associations,
  5. to a local adult education group, and
  6. at national or international conferences.

There are also various formats in which you might present your work, for example as a lecture (or series of lectures), at a seminar, at a workshop, etc. Whichever format you adopt, you will need to give some thought (and practice) to how you present, particularly if you have not done this kind of thing before.

Really confident and eloquent speakers can just sit or stand and talk for however much time is needed or available; or, at least, they seem to be able to do so. Most of us, however, need supports of some kind or another.

The days of ‘chalk and talk’ seem now long gone, and even overhead transparencies are already old fashioned. The more dynamic speakers can still work wonders with a flipchart and pens, scribbling down ideas and issues as they arise. PowerPoint presentation is currently in fashion, but you should be careful not to overdo it or to use it incorrectly, for example by writing everything on slides and then reading off from them. Whatever form of presentation you adopt, planning and practice will be necessary.  

Summary

The title of your thesis must be clear, short, and relevant to the topic of your research.

You should personally proofread the manuscript for your thesis or dissertation.

Check for grammar and typographical errors.

Make sure that you meet the technical and editorial requirements of the university.

You should have your manuscript language-edited.

You can use dedicated computer software and a checklist to proofread your manuscript.

The following guidelines can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of your proofreading:

  1. Find out what errors you typically make.
  2. Learn how to fix your common errors.
  3. Take a break.
  4. Leave yourself enough time to review what you have written.
  5. Read aloud when you are alone.
  6. Role-play and “predict”.
  7. Ask others for feedback.

Check that you use appendices to substantiate arguments, explain long processes and to provide additional information.

You should disseminate your thesis or dissertation to other potential and real interested parties.

Close

This is the last of the 109 videos and articles on research methodology that I made and posted.

I will now prepare a ten to twenty question test on each video.

Those of you who watched the videos on the Mentornet online platform (https://mentornetonline.co.za/videoCourses.php) can do the tests at no additional cost. You can repeat the tests as many times as you wish and, once you have successfully completed all 109 tests, you will automatically be issued with a Mentornet Proficiency Certificate in Research Methodology.

Study leaders and lecturers who are in the know will know that you not only worked through the entire research process on master’s and doctoral level, but also that you understand the concepts and processes.

You can also gain access to the videos for free on YOUTUBE. However, here we post only one video per week.

Also, you will, unfortunately, not be able to do the tests if you did not watch the videos on the Mentornet online platform.

Enjoy your studies.

Thank you.

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ARTICLE 108: Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Reviewing the Thesis or Dissertation Part 2 of 3 Parts

Lifestyle, study. Beautiful girl with a book

Written by Dr. Hannes Nel

Do you think it will be easy to disprove or improve upon existing knowledge and theories?

And if your ideas are good or perhaps even brilliant, is it necessary to pay attention to trivial matters such as spelling and grammar?

Is it necessary to have your thesis or dissertation language edited if English is your first language?

I discuss reviewing the relevance of your research arguments and language usage in this article.

Relevance of ideas in the literature

A thesis or dissertation cannot apply to every possible field of study. Furthermore, research should be placed within the context of the general body of scientific knowledge, and you will need to show where your report fits into the picture. This is especially important in research on doctoral level because of the requirement to develop new knowledge or the widening of existing knowledge.

You cannot even start doing research without having an idea that you would like to investigate. Some students find this first step rather challenging. However, creative students mostly do not see this as a challenge. Almost any event or even physical object can trigger an idea for a research project. The difficulty or ease of a research project largely depends on how accessible information on the topic is. You can complete a research project quickly and with little effort if information is easy to find. However, it is mostly the difficult projects, where information is sparse or hard to gain access to, that mostly pose problems to be resolved through research. These are often also the topic in which research is needed the most.

You should indicate what the purpose of your study is early in your thesis or dissertation. On doctoral level you should do this in your research proposal already. Once your purpose with the research is clear, you also need to link what you have in mind with existing knowledge and research previously done. If relevant, you should also point out what, in your opinion, is wrong or flawed in current knowledge and philosophy. Such flaws can often serve as a motivation why the research that you wish to do is important and relevant.

You may feel the need to challenge previous research and its findings, in the event of which you should carefully review the studies that have led to the acceptance of those ideas. You may also now already point out why you disagree with previous research and then embark on your investigation to prove a hypothesis or problem statement or solve a problem question.

You might have discovered that previous researchers disagree about a certain topic, event, procedure, phenomenon, philosophy, value system, etc. Previous researchers might also contradict one another in their findings and resulting points of view.

It might be your intention to study a particular topic further in the hope of finding evidence that would support one of the opposing points of view, or even evidence that would show that a completely different point of view is correct. You should already focus your initial literature study on the collection of data that would support your hypothesis, problem statement or problem question. It might be necessary to briefly state the research supporting one view, then summarise the research opposing it or supporting a different view, and finally suggest the reasons for the disagreement.

Your summary of existing literature should contain sufficient information to serve as a foundation of your further study, and to serve as a valid and accurate account of the point of view that you disagree with. Although it should not be so long that it creates the impression that you are supporting the stance, it should also not be so limited that you misrepresent the findings of previous researchers.

You should also mention literature that you consulted, that is sufficiently balanced to show that you have a good understanding of the previous work, without denying you an opportunity to improve on what you consider as flawed, insufficient or false knowledge. The sources that you consulted should be included in the bibliography at the end of your thesis or dissertation, and the review of the literature should include only sources that you used and that have relevance to your research.

Researchers often wonder what comes first – theory or ideas. Some feel that ideas should be based on theory while others feel that theory originates from ideas. Both arguments probably hold some truth. Especially research on Ph. D. level should be founded on existing theory and result in new theory, thereby creating a spiral of growth in the knowledge at our disposal in a particular discipline.        

Reviewing language usage

You should have your thesis or dissertation language edited. Most students will be able to check their own work, especially because the study leader in such an instance should focus on the content and not on language proficiency, unless the thesis or dissertation is one on languages.

Proofread your thesis or dissertation and have it language-edited at least once before submitting it for final assessment. Every word needs to be checked carefully. Spelling checks on computer do not identify all spelling errors. For example, if you misspelled “with” as “wit” the computer will not pick up the error because “wit” is also an English word. Also, errors in the spelling of names will not be indicated. Make a special check of the correct syllabic division of words at the end of lines if words have been split between lines. And of course, you must check for grammar and syntax errors.

You may use the services of a professional language editor. Even so, it is a good idea to also ask a friend, colleague or family member to go through the thesis or dissertation.

You should check the spelling of unusual words in an authoritative dictionary. For questions of punctuation, capitalisation, hyphenation and abbreviation, reference should be made to a recognised text of English language usage. Word processing software makes light work of much of the careful checking necessary in the draft thesis or dissertation.

A spelling checker will detect most (but not all) spelling and typing errors while the find and replace facility helps to achieve consistency as, for example, in replacing all z spelling by s (U.S. versus U.K. English) or ensuring that words like programme (or program) are spelled consistently throughout the thesis or dissertation.

Summary

It is almost always necessary to articulate academic research to the context of scientific knowledge.

You need to know what you are hoping to achieve with your research before you can start conducting research.

Once you know the purpose of your research, your next challenge is to collect and analyse relevant data.

You should use current knowledge as the foundation upon which to build your research.

You might regard it necessary to critically analyse current knowledge and theories.

You must acknowledge the literature and other data sources that you consulted.

You should have your thesis or dissertation language edited.

And you should check for:

  1. Spelling and typing errors.
  2. Syllabic division of words at the end of lines if words have been divided between lines.
  3. Grammar and syntax errors.
  4. Punctuation, capitalisation, hyphenation and abbreviation.
  5. Consistency.

Close

It is often necessary to analyse existing knowledge and theories critically to develop new knowledge.

However, guard against underestimating the quality of the research done by academics in the past.

And your embarrassment will be further compounded if your thesis or dissertation is full of language errors.

Enjoy your studies.

Thank you.

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ARTICLE 107: Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: Reviewing the Thesis or Dissertation Part 1 of 3 Parts

Introduction

Hello I am Hannes Nel

I discuss the review of the thesis or dissertation separately to ensure that the review process receives the attention that it deserves and is not swamped by other, technical aspects of academic research.

However, keep in mind that the review process is part of writing the thesis or dissertation.

Review is a task that you will continue throughout the duration of writing your thesis or dissertation. It begins with checking if the topic of your choice still makes sense and if the thesis or dissertation satisfies the research problem, question or hypothesis. You also need to check carefully that the proposed study has not previously been undertaken. You would probably have done this already when you prepared your research proposal but might have discovered similar or overlapping theses or dissertations while collecting data for your research. This is especially important in the case of doctoral studies, where you are supposed to contribute to the currently available knowledge in a particular field.

Once you are satisfied that there is a need for your research, you still need to check that the literature study that you did satisfactorily serves as a solid theoretical foundation for your investigation. You could not have researched a topic without gaining a good measure of knowledge and understanding of the discipline. If necessary, this might be your last opportunity to improve the theoretical foundation of your research. 

The purpose of a review

There are many different review methods used with different purposes in mind. We already discussed the initial literature review which you should do when preparing or perhaps even before you prepare your research proposal. In this instance your purpose was to demonstrate to your readers that you have sufficient knowledge of the topic to do the research. You also needed to do the initial literature review to enrich your own knowledge and understanding of the topic of your research. It is true that you should have a good knowledge and, perhaps, experience in the field of your research. However, we can and should always learn. Besides, research on especially doctoral level is done to create new knowledge or at least to add to the currently available knowledge. This means that you will embark on an investigation of a topic that was not previously studied, at least not in terms of the purpose of your research. Even so, you will need current knowledge as your starting point.

Now that you are finalising your research, you will do the review to identify any gaps in your thesis or dissertation. Gaps can be simple typing, spelling or grammar errors; not acknowledging all references; incomplete information, arguments, conclusions or recommendations; flaws in the structure of the document or in the usage of research methodology; cognitive flaws; a problem statement, research question or hypothesis that has not been satisfactorily answered.

One useful way of thinking about the purpose of the review is to consider whether your aim is primarily aggregative or interpretive. Aggregative syntheses focus on summarising data, and they may often be organised around evaluating the effectiveness of various interventions or programmes. Interpretive syntheses are concerned with the development of concepts and the specification of theories that integrate those concepts. It involves generating concepts that have maximum explanatory value. The distinction between an aggregative and an interpretive synthesis is largely a heuristic one; the difference is one of emphasis. The sum of aggregative synthesis and interpretive synthesis is often generalisation.

A review should be based on a review question or questions, that is what you hope to achieve with the review. It works well to prepare criteria that you will use to review the thesis or dissertation. The criteria should, of course, help you to satisfy your review question. Your review question will probably be something like: “Has the purpose of the research been achieved?” Review criteria can be developed in the form of binary questions under specific headings. Here is an example of such criteria and questions:

Review question: Has the purpose of the research been achieved?

Criterion 1: Has the thesis or dissertation been professionally and logically structured?

  1. Is the study contextualised?
  2. Has the research methodology been discussed?
  3. Has a theoretical foundation been established?
  4. Etc.

Criterion 2: Has a suitable research method been used?

  1. Is the chosen research method suitable for the type of research?
  2. Has a data-collection strategy been given?
  3. Are the data collection tools suitable for the collection of valid data?
  4. Etc.

Criterion 3: Did you come to logical conclusions and did you make valuable recommendations?

  1. Has the status quo been analysed in sufficient depth?
  2. Have valid and valuable conclusions be drawn?
  3. Have viable recommendations been made?
  4. Etc.

The relevance of sources

Sources consulted must be relevant to the problem statement. We usually make use of primary, secondary and tertiary sources when doing research. Primary sources of information include the notes and reports prepared by the researcher who conducted an experiment in the case of quantitative research or investigated a phenomenon or event in the case of qualitative research. These are popularly called first-hand accounts and are captured in articles in professional journals, monographs, doctoral or master’s theses, assignments, interview reports and questionnaires,  original works (letters, diaries, eyewitness accounts, poems, novels, autobiographies) and other reports (proceedings of parliament, court testimony, reports of government departments and agencies, annual reports, minutes, etc.).

Secondary sources of information originate from primary sources. They are often simple relays, summaries, deconstructions or perhaps even reconstructions of information gathered from primary sources. Examples of secondary sources include translations, summaries, research reviews, abstracts, articles on the findings of a research project, discussions of research findings or procedures, etc.

Textbooks are the most used tertiary sources of information. Although they can be written from primary sources of information, most researchers need to fall back on secondary sources because of time, access and other constraints and because the original source material may be lost. Tertiary sources of information are, unfortunately, often old, but can still be useful in providing an overview or broad summary of a field and to obtain foundational information, such as definitions, principles, guidelines, historical developments, etc. They may even be acceptable as references because some textbooks become acknowledged as authorities. However, there is no substitute for consulting primary sources if these are available, and postgraduate work in most subject areas demands it.

Always keep in mind that, eventually, you need to go beyond the sources that you consulted. Especially in doctoral studies, you need to create new knowledge. This means that you will use existing knowledge to provide the readers of your thesis or dissertation with background information that should enable them to understand your arguments, conclusions and recommendations better, to confirm that the purpose of your research is valid. To achieve this, you will need to introduce the concepts and terminology that you will use. You also need to find a measure of support for your problem statement, question or hypothesis in the opinions and arguments of other experts who studied the subject before you.

Summary

The review process should be part of writing a thesis or dissertation.

You should continually be on the lookout for mistakes, flaws and opportunities to improve the quality of your work.

The purpose of a review should include to check if:

  1. you consulted primary, secondary and tertiary sources of data where applicable,
    • you satisfied the purpose of your research,
    • the topic of your research is still relevant and new,
    • there is a need for your research, and
    • all the gaps in your thesis or dissertation have been covered.

In the case of doctoral studies, you should also check if you achieved generalisation.

The review process should be based on criteria formulated as review questions.

Close

Although you should personally review your thesis or dissertation, it would be a good idea to ask somebody else to also look at your work.

We are often ‘blind’ to our own mistakes.

Outsiders, for example family, friends, or colleagues are often more objective because they are not as emotionally involved in your ‘creation’ as you are.

Enjoy your studies.

Thank you.

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ARTICLE 106: Research Methods for Ph. D and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation: Essential Information in References: Part 2 of 2 Parts

Written by Dr. Hannes Nel

I discuss the following aspects of essential information in references in this article:

  1. Using abbreviations, spacing and capitalisation.
  2. Alphabetical and chronological order.
  3. Anonymous publication.
  4. Pseudonymous publication.
  5. Association or university as the author.
  6. Conference papers and proceedings of conferences.
  7. Other sources of information.

Using abbreviations, spacing and capitalisation. You should avoid abbreviating periodical names because confusion may result with little saving of space. There are some differences in the meaning and use of abbreviations by different universities. Check the policies and procedures in use by the university where you are enrolled or would like to enrol for post-graduate studies and use them consistently and accurately.

The general rule for punctuation is to follow the abbreviated form with a full stop if the final letter is not the same as the final letter of the full form. However, an increasing tendency is to omit punctuation in such abbreviations. What is important is that you use the rule that you decide on consistently.

It is a good idea to use single-spaced entries for references, with double spacing between entries, because it is more readable. Names of authors stand out more clearly if references are entered using what is called a hanging indent. That is, indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry about 0.5 cm as illustrated below. However, check what the university where you study prefers.

Example:

Drieke, S. 2009. The shortage of science teachers. In L.L. Lalu (ed.) The Scarce and Critical Skills Needs Dilemma, Longman, Toronto.

In a list of references, title case is used for book titles and titles are italicised or underlined where an italic font is unavailable. Title case means capitalising all key words. You can also write book titles as they are typed on the book cover. If title case is used you also use it and if not, then you also do not. No italics or underlining is used for unpublished works. If a reference comprises more than one volume, the entry must state the total number of volumes comprising the reference.

Example:

Seepe, A. 2011. The Devolvement of Education in South African Universities (5 vols). University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town.

In the case of journal articles, the titles of journals are italicised and in title case. Titles of journal articles are in sentence case. That is, capitalise only first words, proper nouns and first words after a colon:

Example:

Shalem, P.T. 2008. The link between student identity and self-esteem among adults. South African Journal of Quality Assurance, 30 (5), 45-49.

Alphabetical and chronological order. To locate references quickly in an alphabetically ordered list of references, author’s names always appear with initials following the name. However, in all other cases such as names of editors and translators, initials precede the name. The determination of a strict alphabetical order can sometimes still be a problem. Mc and Mac are listed under M as though the prefix were spelled Mac; and surnames starting with St are treated as though they were given in full (i.e. Saint). The simple way to treat names such as de Jong, D’Orsogna, Le Thomas is to order them alphabetically starting with the first letter of the prefix. If in doubt, a telephone book or electoral roll may be a helpful guide, or simply let your computer software arrange the names alphabetically for you.

In the case of compounded surnames such as P.L. Lofty-Eaton, the name becomes Lofty-Eaton, P.L. and is placed in alphabetical order beginning with the initial letter of the first part of the surname. Initials help alphabetical ordering where names are identical, for example:

Singh, M.

Singh, P.

Stanton, A.

Stanton, E.

Stanton, K.

Where several references by the same author are listed, entries are ordered chronologically from oldest to most recent. If the same author wrote more than one book in the same year, the year can be followed by the letters of the alphabet starting with ‘a’. Often entries need to be ordered alphabetically within a chronological sequence, but in such cases, any works by a single author precede those works in which she or he is the senior co-author:

Majeke, P.S. 2005a. A Reflection on Transformation. Juta, Johannesburg.

Majeke, P.S. 2005b. Student Power, Action and Problems. Juta, Cape Town.

Majeke, P.S. and McFarlane, A.T. 2006. Contemporary Female Debates on Education. University Press, Oxford.

Majeke, P.S., Gibben, T. and Naidoo, R.W. 2004. Syndicate-based Peer Group Learning. Wadsworth, Belmont Canada.

Where you refer in the text to works by multiple authors, it is common practice to distinguish works by more than three authors from works by one, two or three authors. To avoid overburdening the text with names, you note in the in-text reference the first author only and, for the others, use the Latin abbreviation et al. (meaning ‘and others’). Thus, an in-text reference to a work by more than three authors might appear in one of the following forms:

Examples:

Holtman et al. (2011) disagree with …

Other authors (e.g. Holtman et al.) disagree with …

It is not necessary to italicise the et al. because it is sufficiently common in English usage.

Anonymous publication. Works of anonymous authors are alphabetised under their titles:

Example:

Theories and models in distance education. 2011. The Performance Bulletin, 22 (7), 5 – 9.

A reference to this work in the text must use the title (or the first few words of the title in the case of longer titles) in place of the usual name:

Example:

Students must apply strict self-discipline if they are to achieve success in distance education (Theories and models in distance education. 2011).

If the author of an anonymous work is known, the name can be placed in square brackets and entered in the reference under the name:

Example:

[Sfard, O.] 2007. A Descriptive Reading of Academic Depth. African Trumpet, 11 (3), 13 – 15.

Pseudonymous publication. Pseudonymous works are listed under the pseudonym with the author’s name, where known, following in brackets:

Example:

Highflyer [G.J. Alexander] 2017. Touching the Ninth Cloud. Penquin, Johannesburg.

Again, square brackets are used. Citing this work in the text uses the pseudonym, not the author’s name, which is information that has been added. Thus, it can be used as follows:

Example:

Highflyer (2017) strikingly describes …

Association or university as the author. Where an association or university is the author, the name of the association or university appears in the author position. The abbreviation for the university may be placed in brackets where such information more readily identifies the university. If the association or university is both the author and publisher, it is best to repeat the information in author and publisher positions:

Example 1:

Association of Private Providers. 2019. Building Communities of Trust. (2nd ed.). Association of Private Providers. Johannesburg, South Africa.

Note that the country is added where other countries might have similarly named associations or universities. To cite such work in the text of the thesis or dissertation you need to follow the usual pattern with the association or university replacing the author.

Example 2:     

UNISA. 2019. Community Engagement in Social support Drives. UNISA. Pretoria.

UNISA is known well enough so that the full name need not be used and the city also need not be specified because “everybody” knows where UNISA is.

If there is no author given. Where there is no stated author, the title is placed in the author position:

Example:

The Impact of Learning Communities on Student Success. 2011. Naledi, Johannesburg.

Conference papers and proceedings of conferences. Papers presented at conferences have authors and a year followed by the title of the conference paper, name of the conference, conference venue and dates:

Example:

Solomons, E. 2020. Vandalism at South African Universities. Paper presented to a Conference on Skills Development, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, May 23 – 25.

Where proceedings of a conference are published, referencing follows the practice of an article in an edited work, with the association and venue for the conference included in the reference:

Example:

Steyn, M. 2018. The Impact of Changing Funding Source on Higher Education. In J.P. Red and W. Blue (eds.), Funding Lifelong Learning. UCT Press, Cape Town, Proceedings of the UCT 23rd International Congress on Lifelong Learning. Cape Town, April 23-27.

To reference conference papers as well as unpublished papers, theses, and newspaper articles the form of referencing in the text follows the typical pattern:

Example:

According to Steyn (2018) it is becoming …

Other sources of information. There are several other sources of information that you probably will use. If in doubt, always follow the ‘standard format’. The following are such references:

  • A thesis is not considered published material. Therefore, titles are not italicised or underlined and are in sentence case. Some universities, however, might have different policies in this respect.
  • Magazines and newspapers are arranged and printed much the same as periodicals. Therefore, they are treated similarly to periodicals except that it is normal to put the abbreviation p, or pp. in front of the page numbers as appropriate to avoid confusion with volume or issue numbers.
  • The basic format for films, videotapes, CDs or any other electronic source is similar to any other source except that one can add film, videotape, CD, etc. in square brackets after the title.

Summary

You should avoid abbreviating periodical names.

Single-spaced entries for references with double spacing between entries are preferred by many universities.

All key words can be capitalised, or titles can be typed as they are in the original sources.

Author’s names are used to list references in alphabetical order.

Works of anonymous authors are alphabetised under their titles.

Pseudonymous works are listed under the pseudonym with the author’s name, where known, following in brackets.

Where an association or university is the author, the name of the association or university appears in the author position.

Where there is no author given, the title is placed in the author position.

Papers presented at conferences have authors and a year followed by the title of the conference paper, name of the conference, conference venue and dates.

If you use a source that does not fit any of the given types, you should stay as close to the standard format as possible.

Close

You must read the referencing policy of the university where you study, because:

  1. Some academics regard using Latin abbreviations as outdated.
  2. Mixed referencing approaches are sometimes allowed.
  3. Universities sometimes develop their own referencing systems.
  4. Referencing online sources introduced a new challenge to consistent referencing.

Enjoy your studies.

Thank you.

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ARTICLE 104: Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation: Referencing Sources

Written by Dr. Hannes Nel

Is it acceptable to include books that you read in the references or bibliography of your thesis or dissertation even if you did not use any of the information in the books?

Is it acceptable to include books that you did not read in the references or bibliography of your thesis or dissertation?

How much of a book should you read before you can include it in your list of references or bibliography?

How much of a book should you read before you must include it in your list of references or bibliography?

Hello, I am Hannes Nel, and I discuss the following aspects of referencing sources in this article:

  1. The reference system.
  2. Works cited.
  3. Bibliography.
  4. Sources consulted.
  5. References.

The reference system. The term reference system is used to embrace the conventions or rules for specifying details such as author, date, publisher, and so on, of sources of information to which reference may be made in a thesis or dissertation. There are several different referencing systems of which the Harvard, APA (American Psychological Association) and Vancouver systems are some of the best-known examples. In part a derivative of these, the Author-date system is also widely accepted across most, if not all, disciplines.

Works cited. Works cited comprises a list of all sources that are referred to either in the text or the footnotes of a thesis or dissertation. The Works cited (also sometimes called Sources cited) is the most common form of bibliography, although the heading Bibliography or References or List of references is often substituted for Works cited. Works cited is an alphabetical list of the sources you used in the body of your project. It should be the last pages in your report, but mostly come directly after the body of the report before any annexures or appendixes. Some universities, however, prefer works cited to come after annexures or appendixes.

Bibliography. Strictly speaking, a bibliography is a list of published works, although by common usage both published and unpublished material are listed in a bibliography. A selected bibliography contains those sources cited, together with the more relevant works that have been consulted. A brief annotated bibliography is a list of references, at least some of which are followed by a note on the content and usefulness of the references.

Sources consulted. Sources consulted are a broader kind of bibliography and consists of a comprehensive listing of works consulted, including those that are not quoted from, or to which reference has not been made.

References. The term References is the most commonly used of these terms across different disciplines. Whichever term is used, however, the heading is placed, in the case of theses or dissertations, at the top of a page using a similar format to chapter headings. The references are usually placed immediately after the last chapter of a thesis or dissertation, but some writers prefer to place the references after appendices or annexures.

References differ from a Bibliography. In the list of References you list only items that you have actually cited in your research paper. In a Bibliography you list all the material you have consulted in preparing your assignment or thesis whether or not you have actually cited the sources.

Every book, article, thesis, document or manuscript and electronic source that has been consulted and cited should be included in the list of references. The references should follow a logical arrangement in alphabetical order of author’s names. Current practice in most disciplines favours one comprehensive listing – not a division into primary sources and secondary sources, or books, journals, newspapers, documents and official papers, and manuscripts, although such a separation is sometimes required if a large number of sources have been consulted. Listing internet sources separately makes sense because their format is different from books, etc.

There are no absolute rules on referencing, and conventions for referencing electronic sources are not yet firmly established.

The method adopted is influenced by the method of citation in the body of the thesis or dissertation, the system of footnoting employed, the practice of a particular field of study, and the requirements of your study leader, department or university. Should you find that the format recommended in the Author-date system in my next video is not acceptable in all respects, you should change from the system presented here to the one prescribed by your study leader or university.

Setting out and punctuation in references follow a different format from a footnote. For example, in a footnote the author’s name is given in the natural order of initials or first names followed by the surname, but in a list of references the surname precedes the initials or first names. The reason for differences in format lies in the purpose of each system. The purpose of a footnote is to give the specific location of the source of a statement (fact, idea, concept) made in the text, including the number of the actual page on which the statement appears in the original source. Such a practice assists the reader to verify the information.

The purpose of a bibliographical entry in a list of references, on the other hand, is to identify the whole work rather than a specific part of it. It would be cumbersome to repeat the general reference on each occasion that a source is cited in a footnote, yet the full details of the source need to be included somewhere in the thesis or dissertation for readers to consult as required. Such detail is especially important with revised editions (in which the case number of the edition also should be given), or where a work has been republished by another publisher. The major aim of a referencing system should always be to achieve clarity and consistency and, above all, accuracy in referencing.

Summary

A reference system is the conventions or rules for specifying the details of data sources.

Works cited is an alphabetical list of the data sources that you used in your thesis or dissertation.

A bibliography is a list of published data sources that you consulted for your research.

Sources consulted is a list of published and unpublished data sources that you consulted, including the ones that you did not use in your thesis or dissertation.

A bibliography is a list of all the data sources that you used in your thesis or dissertation.

Through common usage the difference between works cited, bibliography, sources consulted and references have become unclear.

Close

Remember to give credit to the sources from which you found the material you used directly in your project. You must do this whenever you use a complete piece of someone else’s material or a recognisable part of that material. In this respect you need to take notes carefully so that quotes are accurate, and to observe the conventions of quotations and footnotes in the printed text.

You should acknowledge all data sources that you used in your thesis or dissertation.

This can include artefacts, interviews, models and many more.

However, you should not list data sources that you did not use even if you consulted them.

Enjoy your studies.

Thank you.

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ARTICLE 103: Research Methods for Ph. D. and Master’s Degree Studies: The Layout of the Thesis or Dissertation: Quotations

Written by Dr. Hannes Nel

Do you think your study leader or lecturer will accept it if you develop your own way of writing quotations?

And rather than to explain concepts, procedures, philosophies and so on, you illustrate your arguments by submitting artefacts?

And you describe the context of your research by means of works of art?

Well, it is my experience that many professors are open minded and flexible enough to give you credit for your innovative ideas.

Perhaps one should not go too far with this kind of maverick attitude, though.

I discuss the requirements for quotations in this article.

Quotations must observe the grammatical structure of the sentence of which they are part. This means that verbs must agree in person, number and tense, and pronouns must observe the grammatical structure of the whole. Some universities require that quotations be written on a line lower than the paragraph in which it is used, indented from both sides and written in Italics. Others have different requirements, which can best be explained by means of examples.

Example 1. It would probably be artificial and lead to confusion if data collection and the analysis of data are discussed separately. As Glaser and Strauss (2006: 73) put it:

“The continual intermeshing of data collection and analysis bears directly on how the data collection is brought to close. A researcher can always try to collect more data by checking hypotheses or for generating new properties, categories and hypotheses.”      

In the instance of this research, however, additional information on certain aspects were needed to “complete the puzzle”, and to confirm statements that are often perceptions rather than facts, hence there is greater ‘coverage’ than warranted.

Example 2. It would probably be artificial and lead to confusion if data collection and the analysis of data are discussed separately. As Glaser and Strauss (2006: 73) put it:

The continual intermeshing of data collection and analysis bears directly on how the data collection is brought to close. A researcher can always try to collect more data by checking hypotheses or for generating new properties, categories and hypotheses.

In the instance of this research, however, additional information on certain aspects were needed to “complete the puzzle”, and to confirm statements that are often perceptions rather than facts, hence there is greater ‘coverage’ than warranted.

Example 3. It would probably be artificial and lead to confusion if data collection and the analysis of data are discussed separately. As Glaser and Strauss (2006: 73) put it:

“The continual intermeshing of data collection and analysis bears directly on how the data collection is brought to close. A researcher can always try to collect more data by checking hypotheses or for generating new properties, categories and hypotheses.”

In the instance of this research, however, additional information on certain aspects were needed to “complete the puzzle”, and to confirm statements that are often perceptions rather than facts, hence there is greater ‘coverage’ than warranted.

Your own discussion and the quotation of something that a different author wrote can also be integrated into one paragraph.

Example 4. It would probably be artificial and lead to confusion if data collection and the analysis of data are discussed separately. As Glaser and Strauss (2006: 73) put it: “The continual intermeshing of data collection and analysis bears directly on how the data collection is brought to close. A researcher can always try to collect more data by checking hypotheses or for generating new properties, categories and hypotheses.”

In the instance of this research, however, additional information on certain aspects were needed to “complete the puzzle”, and to confirm statements that are often perceptions rather than facts, hence there is greater ‘coverage’ than warranted.

Quotations can be written in a smaller size and different type of font from your own writing.

Example 5. It would probably be artificial and lead to confusion if data collection and the analysis of data are discussed separately. As Glaser and Strauss (2006: 73) put it:

“The continual intermeshing of data collection and analysis bears directly on how the data collection is brought to close. A researcher can always try to collect more data by checking hypotheses or for generating new properties, categories and hypotheses.”

In the instance of this research, however, additional information on certain aspects were needed to “complete the puzzle”, and to confirm statements that are often perceptions rather than facts, hence there is greater ‘coverage’ than warranted.

Some universities feel that a long (indented) quoted extract not embodied in the structure of a paragraph should not be placed in quotation marks unless the original is either in direct speech, or in quotation marks for some other reason. A space should be left between the paragraph and the beginning of the quotation. The quotation should be indented and typed in single line spacing, and another space left before the paragraph continues, or a new paragraph starts.

Quotations at the end of a sentence take a full-stop outside the closing inverted comma.

Example:

R.K. Yin does not refer to the term generalisation as if its meaning is totally limited to ‘statistical generalisation’.

Where the quotation forms a complete sentence on its own, or is isolated by a colon or dash from the main sentence structure, the closing stop comes inside the closing quotation mark.

Maree (2011: 172) wrote: “It is usually impossible to include the entire population in your study, the two main restrictions being time and cost.”

Where a quotation is broken by the omission of a phrase, three dots should be inserted to indicate the break.

Example:

“As the theory grows … the analyst becomes committed to it.”

Where a complete sentence or series of sentences is omitted, four dots should indicate the break.

Example:

“A key strength of the case study method is the use of multiple sources and techniques in the data collection process…. Data collection is largely qualitative, but may also include quantitative data.”

Where a long, indented quotation is started in the middle of a sentence, three dots should precede the first word to indicate the omission of the first part of the sentence.

Example:

“… starting and examining rival explanations will greatly strengthen any claimed generalisations.”

Where the last part of a long, indented, quoted sentence is omitted the last word should be followed by four dots: three to indicate the omission of the words, the fourth to indicate the full stop at the end of the omitted part.

Example:

“Given all these conditions, if a study only uses structured interviews, the study is most likely to be a survey or poll ….”

Where possible, short quoted phrases and single lines should be embodied in the paragraph, and indentations left for longer quotations. Long quotations need not always be separated from the paragraph, for example if they form an integral part of the structure of the paragraph.

Summary

Quotations must observe the grammatical structure of the sentence of which they are part.

Quotations can be written in many ways, although the differences are mostly subtle and a matter of taste.

The differences mostly hinge around the following:

  1. If there is an open line between the paragraph and the quotation or if the quotation is typed as if it is an integral part of the paragraph.
  2. If there is an open line between the quotation and the next paragraph.
  3. If the quotation is indented on both sides or on the left side only.
  4. If the quotation is typed in italics or a smaller font size than the paragraph.
  5. If single line spacing is used or the same spacing as the paragraph with which the quotation goes.
  6. If the quotation is encapsulated in quotation marks or not.

Other requirements that some universities have include:

  • The position of the closing full-stop after the sentence and quotation.
  • The use of three or four dots where a sentence or quotation is broken.
  • Embodying short quotes in a sentence of paragraph.

Close

As for typing formats in general, the requirements for quotations need not be rigid.

The most important requirement is consistency.

Your study leader or lecturer will probably accept the way in which you type quotations, if you do it consistently the same throughout your thesis or dissertation.

Enjoy your studies.

Thank you.

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